Cyber attacks have become a regular occurrence, and businesses are taking innovative steps to prevent intrusions into their information technology (IT) systems and cloud computing applications. As a result, cyber security has become one of the most in-demand specializations in the IT field.
According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment in the cyber security sector of technology will grow by 33 percent over the next 10 years. During this time, there will be approximately 16,300 new job openings.
If you want to leverage this positive trend and build a career in information security, you’ll need to learn cyber security terminology and gain hands-on experience. This article will provide a list of cyber security terms, a glossary of cyber security terminology, and a cyber security terminology cheat sheet to make sure you’re equipped for a career in the industry.
What Is Cyber Security?
Cyber security, also known as information security, is the application of technology to protect systems, programs, networks, and information from digital attacks. It involves creating security measures to prevent vulnerabilities that could lead to unauthorized intrusions into computer systems.
Digital attacks and intrusions can access, change, or even destroy sensitive information, disrupting normal organizational operations. In the worst-case scenario, it could even steal credit card information, compromise the security perimeter, and result in revenue loss.
A report by IBM containing research from the Ponemon Institute showed that the average cost of a data breach in 2021 was $4.24 million globally. This involves the cost of discovering and responding to security breaches, cost of downtime, lost revenue, and damage to the company’s brand.
Companies that have an efficient cyber security strategy and security controls can easily detect potential threats, advanced threats, combat attacks, and reduce the occurrence of system breaches.
Who Uses Cyber Security Terminology?
Cyber security professionals employ cyber security terminology in their day-to-day operations. The career options available in cyber security include security architect, cyber security engineer, malware analyst, penetration tester, and digital forensic analyst.
List of Cyber Security Terms: Things Every Cyber Security Engineer Should Know
- Antivirus Software
- Asymmetric Encryption
- Attack Vector
- Brute Force Attack
- Cryptographic Algorithm
- Cyber security Posture
- Decryption Key
- Digital Signatures
- Malicious Function
- Insider Threat
- IP Address
- Multi-Factor Authentication
- Malicious Software
- Proxy Server
- Security Incident
- Security Mechanisms
- Social Engineering
- Threat Assessment
- Unauthorized Access
- Virtual Private Network
Glossary of Cyber Security Terminology: 5 Common Cyber Security Terms
Due to the importance of cyber security in an organization’s infrastructure, non-technical employees and IT professionals who work directly in the IT department must understand the fundamental and most commonly used cyber security terms. This section contains definitions for some of the most commonly used terms in the information security industry.
Antivirus software, also known as a malware scanner, is a security program used to monitor, detect, and remove malicious code from a computer. It may delete the malicious software immediately upon detection or quarantine the source file until the computer user makes the final decision. To increase the chances of detecting malware or viruses, cyber security experts recommend using the most recent version of antivirus software.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Need to Know About Antivirus Software
Antivirus software is the first line of defense against unknown malware. This type of security service detects programs that violate normal system rules. The most recent antivirus software has special technologies such as anomaly detection, behavioral detection, and heuristic detection to detect and quarantine malicious code before it can act.
A decryption key is a code that provides access to encrypted information and converts it into a readable format for third-party users. It may be used to unlock and access software in some cases.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Need to Know About Decryption Key
To prevent unauthorized third parties from accessing sensitive information, many organizations use data encryption to encode and convert it into an unreadable format. Even common applications for your computer’s operating system may require a paid decryption key to function properly.
An insider threat is a threat to a company’s system infrastructure that originates within the company, such as an employee or other internal personnel with access to internal controls.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Need to Know About Insider Threats
An insider poses a greater risk to a company’s security mechanism than an outsider. This is because they usually have physical access and logical access to the company’s system and social network. Cyber security engineers need to learn about the concept of insider threats to avoid being duped into divulging sensitive information.
IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is a series of numbers that serve as the identity of computer systems on a network. It stores personal data about the computer user.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Need to Know About IP Address
Cyber criminals can use your IP address to perform illegal activities. Cyber security engineers must understand how to protect their IP addresses. Common safety measures include creating unique passwords for your computers, using a virtual private network (VPN), and using anti-malware.
Malicious software, also known as malware, is any kind of code or program designed to cause harm, spy on users, steal information, or gain unauthorized access to the system. Common forms of malware are viruses, worms, ransomware, adware, and Trojan horses.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Need to Know About Malicious Software
Cyber security engineers need to learn about malicious software because it is the most persistent threat to an organization’s security system and stability. Malware can take many different forms. One form of malware may appear on the computer as a useful application, but it is actually a malicious application that gains access to restricted data. Another form of malware could infiltrate communication systems via email attachments or website links.
Cyber Security Terminology Cheat Sheet: 5 Advanced Cyber Security Terms
An attack vector is a method or path that an intruder employs to exploit vulnerabilities and gain access to the target system. They can then install malware to steal information, spy on a company’s operations, and remotely control the IT infrastructure.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Should Know About Attack Vectors
Cyber security professionals need to learn how to prevent the different types of attack vectors used by hackers to breach a system. Common examples of attack vectors are compromised log-in credentials, malicious applications, phishing, weak encryption, and insider threats. These vectors can be used to scan a system for vulnerabilities and gather information, or damage system resources and disrupt normal operations.
Brute Force Attack
A brute force attack is a type of infiltration that uses trial and error to guess passwords, encryption keys, and log-in details. An unauthorized entity, like a hacker, tries every possible combination of usernames and passwords until they find the correct login details.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Should Know About Brute Force Attacks
Brute force attack is one of the most popular tactics among hackers. Even though it is an old cyber attack method, many recent data breach incidents stemmed from brute force attacks. Cyber security engineers must familiarize themselves with the different types of brute force attacks to prevent unauthorized entry into their accounts.
Types of brute force attacks include simple brute force attacks, dictionary attacks, hybrid brute force attacks, reverse brute force attacks, and credential stuffing.
A proxy server is a router that serves as an intermediary between a computer user and the Internet. It protects an organization’s system from the outside network to ensure security, privacy, and maximum administrative control as part of the company’s security operations.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Should Know About Proxy Servers
The proxy server offers security services such as firewall, web filter, and data caching. This protects the computer user and the internal network from unauthorized intrusion. It can also change your IP address and encrypt your data to keep you safe from malicious Internet applications.
Hackers use social engineering attacks to deceive and manipulate people into disclosing sensitive information and making security mistakes. It occurs as a result of interaction with a hacker who disguises themselves as a friend or a legitimate person using a fake identity. This often happens through various messaging services.
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Why Cyber Security Engineers Should Know About Social Engineering
Cyber criminals prefer social engineering because it is usually easier to persuade people to reveal sensitive information, such as passwords, than it is to hack software. Cyber security engineers must learn about the wide range of social engineering attacks. Notable examples are email address hijacking, baiting, phishing, and pretexting.
Virtual Private Network
A virtual private network, or VPN, is an application used to create an encrypted network over the Internet. It disguises your online activities and masks your Internet traffic, making it more difficult for third parties to track your activities.
Why Cyber Security Engineers Should Know About Virtual Private Networks
Using public WiFi puts you at risk because third parties can easily monitor your personal information and browsing habits. To remain anonymous on unsecured WiFi, cyber security engineers or anyone concerned about their online security should use a VPN service.
How Can I Learn Cyber Security Terminology in 2022?
You can learn cyber security terminology in 2022 through a cyber security bootcamp. A cyber security bootcamp is a special kind of coding bootcamp that offers intensive programs that provide students with hands-on experience for a career in cyber security.
It is easy to feel intimidated by many complex cyber security terminologies. However, it may be easier to learn with a standard introductory cyber security course. This will assist you in learning the fundamentals of cyber security and developing the foundational skills required in the cyber security field.
Cyber Security FAQ
CIA in security is short for confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and is the three basic security principles of information security processes. Confidentiality refers to the secrecy of information and the use of encryption. Integrity is the guarantee that data has not been tampered with. Availability implies that information is available whenever it is required.
The seven types of cyber security threats are malware, emotet, denial of service, Man in the Middle (MITM), Phishing, SQL injection, and password attacks.
Cyber security can also be called information security, computer security, Internet security, IT security, or network security.
Yes, cyber security pays well. According to the BLS, information security analysts make a median annual salary of $103,590.
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