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Engineering Programs and Majors Explained: Degree Levels, Specializations, and Common Engineering Courses

Gloriane Mangindin - June 17, 2022


If you’re thinking about pursuing engineering as a career but don’t know where to start, this article is for you. It covers the different types of engineering degrees, some engineering programs you should consider, and the best engineering jobs available to engineering degree holders.

As engineering is a very broad field, it can be difficult to decide which type of engineering you want to specialize in. Throughout this article, you’ll learn about some of the benefits of different degree levels, things you should consider when choosing your ideal school, and financing options you should consider.

What Is Engineering?

Engineering is a discipline that uses scientific and mathematical methods to solve real-world problems. Engineering programs teach you to design, develop, and build machines and structures using advanced engineering technology and techniques. Engineers use innovation to improve human living through intensive research, discoveries, and inventions. Engineers are useful in all industries, including agriculture, healthcare, education, technology, and transportation.

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Engineering Quick Facts: Job Outlook and Average Salaries

Is Engineering Hard?

Yes, engineering is hard. As one of the most demanding degrees to pursue, it requires a strong foundation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). When studying engineering, you must learn to solve complex problems using critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The exact demands of your engineering degree program depend on the type of engineering you specialize in.

Is Engineering a Good Major?

Yes, engineering is a good major. It offers many job opportunities with high salaries and stable employment. In addition to the wide range of industries, you can choose to work in, becoming an engineer allows you to make meaningful contributions to the advancement of important fields, such as the medical, educational, and technological fields.

Why Should You Get a Degree in Engineering?

You should get a degree in engineering because it will give you a stable career. An engineering degree program at an accredited university will enable you to land a high-paying job and join one of the most in-demand fields. There are many benefits to pursuing an engineering degree program, including many job opportunities, high job satisfaction, continuous learning, and intellectual development.

  1. It opens plenty of career opportunities. Engineering graduates can work in a wide range of industries. Technology is constantly evolving and advancing, which means the demand for engineers is always increasing to keep up with the need.
  2. It has high job satisfaction. A degree in engineering will allow you to work in a challenging role. The compensation, benefits, and job stability all contribute to the high satisfaction rate of engineers.
  3. It prepares you for life-long learning. There are always opportunities for learning in the engineering field, as it evolves faster than nearly any other field. This requires you to continuously learn and adapt to the new developments and demands that come with the constant changes.
  4. It develops your intellectual development. A degree in engineering will strengthen your problem-solving skills and creativity. These skills are valuable for your own personal growth, in addition to the field of engineering.
  5. It equips you with valuable skills. Engineers develop technology for the benefit of society, such as renewable energy, medical technology, and efficient transportation, among other things.

Engineering Major: What Degree Can You Get in Engineering?

The types of engineering degrees you can get include associate degrees, bachelor’s degrees, and master’s degrees. There are various interdisciplinary engineering programs at each degree level. Each engineering program has a unique curriculum with some crossover subjects, depending on your engineering major. Below is a list of engineering degree options.

Types of Associate Degrees in Engineering

Types of engineering associate degrees are an Associate of Science in Engineering, an Associate of Applied Science in Engineering, and an Associate of Arts in Engineering. Associate degree programs typically last two years and build a strong foundation for a bachelor’s degree program in a relevant field.

1

Associate of Science (AS in Engineering)

An Associate of Science in Engineering includes fundamental courses that prepare students for a bachelor’s degree program. These courses include calculus, engineering graphics, and material science. In this program, students will learn about conducting engineering experiments and solving common engineering problems.

Common Associate of Science in Engineering Curriculum

  • Basic Calculus
  • Engineering Graphics
  • Materials Science
2

Associate of Applied Science (AAS in Engineering)

An Associate of Applied Science in Engineering prepares students for entry-level positions. After earning your degree, you’ll have an engineer qualification for engineering jobs like an engineering technologist or an engineering technician. You can gain essential technical skills needed for immediate employment.

Common Associate of Applied Science in Engineering Curriculum

  • Chemistry
  • Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD)
  • Statics
3

Associate of Arts (AA in Engineering)

An Associate of Arts in Engineering will give you fundamental skills in your chosen field. With this degree, students either pursue entry-level engineering jobs or transfer to a four-year institution to finish their bachelor’s degree programs.

Common Associate of Arts in Engineering Curriculum

  • Dynamics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Physics

Types of Bachelor’s Degrees in Engineering

A Bachelor’s Degree in Engineering is a four-year undergraduate credential awarded to graduates of a connected program. Students must complete an average of 120 to 180 and can choose to pursue a Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, or a Bachelor of Engineering degree.

1

Bachelor of Science (BS in Engineering)

A Bachelor of Science in Engineering program is an undergraduate-level program that focuses on understanding theories and doing research. Most engineers earn this bachelor’s degree and begin their careers in engineering immediately after graduating.

Common Bachelor of Science in Engineering Curriculum

  • Advanced Calculus
  • Engineering Mathematics
  • Environmental Science
2

Bachelor of Arts (BA in Engineering)

A Bachelor of Arts program combines liberal arts with engineering subjects to prepare students for people-focused engineering careers. Students will learn the relationship between engineering and society, laws, management, and sciences.

Common Bachelor of Arts in Engineering Curriculum

  • Engineering Management
  • Basic Ethics and Laws
  • Engineering Chemistry
3

Bachelor of Engineering (BEng)

A Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) degree is the most practical degree for engineering students. A Bachelor of Engineering focuses on the practical application of engineering theories and skills, while a Bachelor of Science in Engineering is slightly more theoretically focused.

Common Bachelor of Engineering Curriculum

  • Introduction to Engineering
  • Electrical Circuits and Signals
  • Social Science

Types of Master’s Degrees in Engineering

A Master of Engineering degree program typically lasts for two years and requires students to finish a minimum of 30 credit hours. This degree level teaches students skills and knowledge needed for advanced work in the engineering field. A Master’s Degree in Engineering can be a Master of Science, Master of Arts, or a Master of Engineering.

1

Master of Science (MSc in Engineering)

A Master of Science in Engineering degree is an academic-focused program that often includes a thesis. Many schools give thesis and non-thesis options. An MS in Engineering is a prerequisite for continuing study for a Doctor of Philosophy and prepares graduates for advanced positions within the field.

Common Master of Science in Engineering Curriculum

  • Structural Mechanics
  • Biomechanics
  • Engineer Research
2

Master of Arts (MA in Engineering)

A Master of Arts in Engineering focuses on learning technology and its application to society. It also includes courses related to technology, such as computer programming and networking.

Common Master of Arts in Engineering Curriculum

  • Computer Programming for Engineers
  • Systems and Controls
  • Applied Optimization and Linear Models
3

Master of Engineering (MEng)

A master of engineering is focused on building students' practical skills. An MEng degree can take a year to complete compared to the two years for an MSc degree. MEng degrees also touch on business management. Even though engineering master’s degree programs may not involve a thesis, they do involve an examination at the end of the program.

Common Master of Engineering in Engineering Curriculum

  • Mathematical Modeling
  • Advanced Engineering Mathematics
  • Advanced Numerical Methods

What Will You Learn in an Engineering Degree Program?

You will learn material sciences, advanced mathematics, advanced physics, and electronics in an engineering degree program. Though the subjects will vary depending on your specialization, these courses give common technical knowledge in an engineering degree program.

Engineering programs also teach you to solve problems systematically and logically. Engineering students get practical training and hands-on professional experience. You will also learn to collaborate and communicate effectively through group projects and activities.

Popular Specializations for Engineering Degrees

Popular specializations for engineering degrees often have the highest demand in the job market. Your professional goal will help you identify the right specialization for you. Many prestigious companies hire professional engineers with the specializations below and compensate them well with competitive salaries and generous benefits.

The 5 Most Popular Engineering Concentrations

  1. Software Engineering
  2. Electrical Engineering
  3. Mechanical Engineering
  4. Industrial Engineering
  5. Chemical Engineering

Common Engineering Courses Across All Specializations

Below is a list of common courses engineering students take across all specializations. These courses are essential for a foundational knowledge of engineering. They play a vital role in learning engineering skills.

  • Statics. Statics studies the force acting upon a body with zero acceleration. This course relates to civil, mechanical, aerospace, and other engineering specializations with mechanical systems, robotics, and structural systems where force is involved. This course covers free body diagrams, inertia, friction, and equilibrium.
  • Solid Mechanics. Solid mechanics studies how solid matter reacts when external action is applied. You will learn dynamics, inertia, centroids, plasticity, and elasticity. Civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, and nuclear engineering use this discipline.
  • Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer regarding energy and work. Students learn energy efficiency, energy sustainability, laws of thermodynamics, heat capacity, and enthalpy. Mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, civil engineers, and aerospace engineers often use this.
  • Electric Circuits. This course covers the study of electronics components and the flow of electricity. Engineers must have proficient knowledge of electric circuits because they create systems and devices that use electricity. This course is vital for electrical engineers, computer engineers, mechanical engineers, and aerospace engineers.
  • Materials Science. Materials science deals with the properties and applications of solid materials. It covers manufacturing, metals, ceramics, energy materials, polymeric materials, and nanomaterials. This course is commonly included in industrial engineering, petroleum engineering, and aerospace engineering degrees.

Best Minors for Engineering Students

The best minors for engineering students vary and depend on your specialization. A minor is a secondary focus that augments your major.

The 5 Best Engineering Minors

  1. Computational Engineering
  2. Energy Engineering
  3. Environmental Engineering
  4. Artificial Intelligence Engineering
  5. Biomedical Engineering

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How to Choose the Right Engineering Degree Program for You

When choosing the right engineering degree program, you should first evaluate the schools you’re interested in enrolling in and the engineering programs they offer. You should consider schedule flexibility, career goals, the available engineering specializations, admissions requirements, and the employment outcome.

1

Career Goals

Determine your career goals before becoming an engineering professional. Knowing your goals will help you select the most appropriate program. Depending on your professional goals, you’ll be able to decide the level and type of degree that suits you best.

2

Flexibility

Schools offer flexible schedules for engineering studies, including full-time, part-time, online, in-person, and hybrid options. Flexible schedules help working professionals in their professional and educational advancement. Check the technical requirements for distance learners, such as Internet speed and software tools.

3

Specialization

You will choose your specialization based on your career goals and areas of interest. Consider your passion, skills, career outlook, and your expected salary. Technology enthusiasts can choose computer engineering, electronics engineering, or mechanical engineering specializations. Those who want to work in the construction industry should earn a civil engineering specialization.

4

Barriers to Admission

Admission requirements can be a barrier, so you’ll need to ensure you’re eligible to enroll in the engineering program. Criteria can include a GPA requirement, prerequisite courses, and GRE, SAT, or ACT scores. You will need to submit your official transcripts, recommendation letters, and personal essays. Cost can also be a barrier, so check for financial aid options.

5

Employment Outcomes

Check for employment outcomes in your school search. The employment outcomes demonstrate the quality of the school’s program, industry partners, and student support. High employment outcome means the school is producing competitive engineering graduates.

Best Engineering Colleges and Universities: Where to Find the Top Engineering Degree Programs

Many engineering schools offer engineering programs, which can make choosing one difficult. The accredited schools below provide various engineering specializations for Associate Degrees, Bachelor’s Degrees, and Master’s Degrees in Engineering.

Best Schools to Get an Associate in Engineering

  1. Alpena Community College
  2. Imperial Valley College
  3. Richmond Community College
  4. Ventura College
  5. Wilkes Community College

Best Schools to Get a Bachelor’s in Engineering

  1. California Institute of Technology
  2. Stanford University
  3. Carnegie Mellon University
  4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  5. Purdue University

Best Schools to Get a Master’s in Engineering

  1. Johns Hopkins University
  2. Texas Tech University
  3. Brown University
  4. University of Notre Dame
  5. Rice University

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How Can I Pay for an Engineering Degree Program?

You can pay for an engineering degree program through FAFSA, work-study programs, scholarships, loans, or grants. Check that you are eligible for funding before applying. You may need to submit the required documents during the application process. You can also check for any available student aid the school might offer.

Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)

FAFSA is a form you fill out during the application process to seek eligibility for student aid from the federal government. Colleges and universities also use your FAFSA information to award additional financial aid. Prospective college students complete this form to apply for grants, loans, and work-study programs.

Work-Study Programs

Work-study programs help students pay for school tuition and fees through part-time employment. Most of these jobs are related to the student’s course of study or community service. Work-study programs can also give you valuable practical experience.

Scholarships

Scholarships are awarded based on a wide range of criteria, including academic merit, athletic ability, minority membership, or financial need, among many other things. Scholarship criteria can include a required GPA, course of study, and US citizenship or residency. Most scholarship providers also require a membership to their organizations.

Loans

Students borrow money from lenders to pay for their education. They can borrow from the government or private organizations but must pay the money back with interest. Private loans may have a higher interest rate than federal loans. Consider the type of loans, repayment options, and interest rates when applying for student loans.

Grants

Grants are free student aid that recipients do not need to repay. Grants and scholarships may be both free, but they have different eligibility requirements. Grants are primarily based on financial need. Student grants can be federal grants, state grants, private grants, or school grants.

Engineering Scholarships

Engineering scholarships help students with their educational expenses. Below, we’ll provide you with three popular scholarship options.

1

Astronaut Scholarship Foundation

The Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF) is a non-profit organization that offers over 50 scholarships every year to students pursuing STEM programs. The Mercury 7 astronauts founded this organization in 1984. ASF accepts applicants from its university partners, including Auburn University, Colorado State University, and the Florida Institute of Technology. Applicants must provide recommendation letters, personal statements, transcripts, and a resume.

  • Eligibility Requirements: Must be US citizens, STEM college students entering their junior or senior year and nominated by faculty, must be enrolled at one of the university partners of the scholarship program, plan to pursue research after graduation
  • Amount: $15,000
2

John & Elsa Gracik Scholarship

A member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) named John W. Gracik founded this scholarship fund in 1992. Up to five aspiring mechanical engineering students receive this scholarship award. Those who participate in ASME activities or engineering leadership roles get prioritized for this scholarship. To apply, you must have an ASME account where you will complete and send your online application form.

  • Eligibility Requirements: Must be a US citizen, enrolled in a mechanical baccalaureate or any related program in the US, ASME members, must demonstrate financial need
  • Amount: $5,000
3

AIAA Marillyn Hewson Undergraduate Scholarship

The AIAA Foundation offers a variety of scholarship programs for engineering or STEM students through donations from the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Each year, two students receive the scholarship, which is renewed annually until they finish their programs. Applicants must also provide transcripts, recommendation letters, essays, and resumes.

  • Eligibility Requirements: Must be female US citizens, must be AIAA student members, must have at least a 2.50 GPA, must be interested in the aerospace defense industry, pursuing or planning to pursue aerospace engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, or mechanical engineering
  • Amount: $10,000

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Student Loans for Engineering Majors

Student loans for engineering majors are a common way to help you pay your tuition fee. Students can borrow from private organizations or the government. The loan amount may vary on every degree level.

What Is the Average Student Loan for Engineering Associate Degrees?

The average student loan for engineering associate degrees is about $18,550 over two years, according to the National Center of Education Statistics. Students from public institutions get an average loan of $15,640. Students from private for-profit institutions get an average loan of $26,420, while those from private non-profit schools get a $24,830 average cumulative loan.

What Is the Average Student Loan for Engineering Bachelor’s Degrees?

The average student loan for engineering bachelor’s degrees is $29,910. Undergraduate students from public institutions get an average loan of $26,930. Undergraduate students from private for-profit institutions get an average loan of $31,890, while those from private non-profit schools get an average cumulative loan of $41,320.

What Is the Average Student Loan for Engineering Master’s Degrees?

The average student loan for engineering master’s degrees is $50,290. Graduate students from public schools get an average loan of $42,330. Graduate students from private for-profit schools get an average loan of $62,010, while those from private non-profit schools get an average loan of $56,350.

How to Get Into the Best Schools for Engineering

To get into the best schools for engineering, you should thoroughly research the quality of the school or engineering program. Below are our top five tips for getting into the best programs at engineering schools.

Top 5 Tips to Get Into the Best Programs at Engineering Schools

  1. Research the employment outcome of each school through statistics or testimonials of former students.
  2. Choose your specialization and search for schools that offer it.
  3. Choose an accredited school or accredited engineering program.
  4. Explore the program’s curriculum.
  5. Check if the school provides career services and internship opportunities.

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How Can You Get an Engineering Internship While in College?

You can get an engineering internship while in college by exploring internship opportunities online and at job fairs. Internships give your professional and practical experience. This section will discuss the three common ways to get an internship while in college.

1

Attend Job Fairs

Companies attend job fairs where they offer many job and internship opportunities to students. Job fairs will help you network and connect directly with potential employers. This connection can increase your chances of getting an internship.

2

Explore Job Boards

Search for available internship opportunities online by visiting job boards such as Indeed, LinkedIn, Internships.com, Glassdoor, and Internmatch.com. Besides the numerous third-party websites, you can go to the official website of any engineering company to see if there are available internships.

3

Use Your School’s Career Services

Career services connect students to companies that hire interns. Career services conduct interview training, resume training, and career coaching. They can also help you prepare your internship application.

What Jobs Can You Get With an Engineering Degree?

The jobs you can get with an engineering degree include civil engineering, mechanical engineering, software engineering, structural engineering, systems engineering, and electrical engineering. Plenty of engineering jobs are available across a wide range of industries.

With an Associate Degree in Engineering, you can qualify for technician and specialist job positions. You can get a mid-level engineering position with a bachelor’s degree. Those who earn a master’s degree qualify for senior-level positions and leadership roles.

Engineering Degree Salary Outlook

Engineering degree salary may vary on engineering specialization and degree level. The table below shows the average salary you can earn when you get an engineering degree.

Degree Level Average Salary
Engineering Associate Degree $68,000
Engineering Bachelor’s Degree $92,000
Engineering Master’s Degree $99,000

Engineering Degree Jobs and Career Outlook: What Can You Do With an Engineering Degree?

With an engineering degree, you can work in a construction company, develop machines, create electrical systems, or work in manufacturing. Engineering specializations influence engineering jobs.

Top Engineering Associate Degree Jobs

  1. Electronics Technician
  2. Aerospace Engineering Technician
  3. Biomedical Equipment Technician
  4. Mechanical Engineering Technologist
  5. Computer Support Specialist

Top Engineering Bachelor’s Degree Jobs

  1. Civil Engineer
  2. Nuclear Engineer
  3. Software Engineer
  4. Aerospace Engineer
  5. Computer Hardware Engineer

Top Engineering Master’s Degree Jobs

  1. Senior Systems Engineer
  2. Processing Engineering Manager
  3. Construction Project Manager
  4. Structural Engineer
  5. Senior Electrical Engineer

Highest-Paying Engineering Jobs

Highest-Paying Engineering Jobs Entry-Level Salary (0-12 Months) Early-Career Salary(1-4 Years) Mid-Career Salary (5-9 Years) Experienced Salary (10-19 Years)
Software Engineer $77,926 $86,338 $97,896 $108,493
Computer Hardware Engineer $75,953 $81,910 $94,960 $108,734
Nuclear Engineer $72,163 $79,235 $95,589 $116,554
Petroleum Engineer $87,503 $91,854 $108,112 $134,190
Robotics Engineer $81,619 $83,600 $95,951 $98,940

Professional Engineering Organizations and Resources

A Professional engineering qualification provides many opportunities to join professional organizations that will help you advance your career. These organizations may vary depending on your specialization.

1

National Society of Professional Engineers

The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) is an organization for professional engineers in the United States. The headquarters of the NSPE is located in Alexandria, Virginia.

This organization promotes engineering ethics and protects the legal rights of professional engineers. NSPE holds online seminars for its members and provides courses for continuing education. This organization will also help you connect with other engineers through networking opportunities.

2

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers‎

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an association of electrical and electronics engineering professionals who promote technological advancements for global development and economic growth. Members of this organization collaborate to create technology projects that impact society. The IEEE has several technology communities you can join based on your area of interest. These communities include Big Data Community, Blockchain Community, and Cloud Computing Community.

3

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional organization for all engineering disciplines with more than 90,000 global members. This organization offers scholarships and provides classes and technical courses every year.

Professional engineers such as mechanical engineers, biomedical engineers, industrial engineers, and engineering students can be a member of ASME. This organization also provides certifications and accreditation programs.

Engineering in 10 Years: Is Getting an Engineering Degree Worth It?

Yes, getting an engineering degree is worth it. Engineering in 10 years will continue to expand with technological advancements and innovation. There is a continuous demand for engineering experts who develop advanced devices and systems to benefit humanity and solve society’s problems.

Many schools offer engineering degrees to those who want to gain advanced engineering knowledge and intensive experience in this field. This respected career has more than a competitive salary. It positively impacts the world, which makes engineering a career worth pursuing.

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Engineering Degree FAQ

What are the essential skills of engineers?

The essential skills of engineers include proficient knowledge of mechanical systems, industry skills, computer science, structural analysis, and data modeling. They must also have strong communication skills, excellent problem-solving skills, leadership skills, creativity, interpersonal skills, and critical thinking skills.

What are the different types of engineering?

The different types of engineering include software engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, aeronautical engineering, biomedical engineering, and environmental engineering, among others.

What companies hire engineers?

Companies that hire engineers are Google, NASA, Apple, IBM, Intel Corporation, Johnson & Johnson, Shell Oil Company, Tesla, and Ford Motor Company. These prestigious companies also offer generous employee benefits packages including health insurance, retirement plans, life insurance, vision insurance, and dental insurance.

How to apply for an engineering position?

To apply for an engineering position, search for available opportunities on several job sites such as LinkedIn, Glassdoor, and Indeed. Create an account and send applications to as many companies as possible that hire engineers. You can also send your applications directly to a company website. Before you apply, be sure to carefully read the job description and prepare all the necessary documents like a cover letter and resume.

About us: Career Karma is a platform designed to help job seekers find, research, and connect with job training programs to advance their careers. Learn about the CK publication.

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Gloriane Mangindin

About the author: Gloriane is a content writer who has previously worked as a systems analyst, college instructor, and SHS Teacher. Her professional interests include software engineering, cyber security, technical writing, and embedded systems. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering as well as Computer Hardware Servicing NC II and Technical Drafting NC II qualifications.

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