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Christina Kopecky

Technical Writer

Christina is an experienced technical writer, covering topics as diverse as Java, SQL, Python, and web development. She earned her Master of Music in flute performance from the University of Kansas and a bachelor's degree in music with minors in French and mass communication from Southeast Missouri State. Prior to joining the Career Karma team in June 2020, Christina was a teaching assistant, team lead, and section lead at Lambda School, where she led student groups, performed code and project reviews, and debugged problems for students. Christina's technical content is featured frequently in publications like Codecademy, Repl.it, and Educative.

How Is SQL’s Not Equal Operator Used?
The SQL not equal operator is represented by <>. This operator lets you select rows from a database that do not meet a particular condition. The != operator is used in a WHERE statement. The != operator can be used instead of <> in some instances of SQL. How to Use the SQL Not Equal…
Java Regex: An Introduction
There may come a time in your application development journey where you need to find patterns in strings. Some methods can take time to execute, while others save you time. One time-saving technique called regex — regular expressions — can be used to find or validate string patterns. This article takes a look at what…
JavaScript: MultiLine Strings Using \n and Template Literals
You can create a JavaScript multiline string using new line characters, concatenation, and template string literals. Template string literals are the most modern syntax and also let you embed variables into a string. Have you ever wanted to span a string across multiple lines of text? I would not be surprised. This is a very…
HTML Superscript and Subscript Text And When to Use It
The HTML <sup> tag specifies superscript text. This is text that appears at the top of a line of text. The <sub> tag represents subscript text. This is text that appears at the bottom of a line of text. Most of the time when we encounter text, it has a traditional baseline and x-height. Everything…
Alexa Skills: Courses, Training, and Other Resources
Virtual assistants are practically available everywhere these days. Apple’s Siri and the Google Assistant are some of the more popular online personal assistants that have snuck into every corner of our lives. This article focuses on Amazon Alexa, and how to approach building “skills” for it as a voice user interface (VUI) developer — someone…
[object Object]: What does this mean?
[object Object] is a string representation of an object. You may see this text if you use alert() to print an object to the screen, for instance. You can view the contents of an object using console.log(), JSON.stringify(), or a for...in loop. When developing using JavaScript, many of us have encountered the output: [object Object].…
Python Dictionary: A Guide for Beginners
A Python dictionary stores data in key-value pairs. A key is a label for a value. Dictionaries are declared as a set of keys and values between a pair of curly brackets. The syntax for a key and value is: "key_name": value. When you take a look at a dictionary (Merriam-Webster’s, Oxford), what do you…
Learn Kubernetes: Courses, Resources and Tutorials
What is Kubernetes? Kubernetes is an open-source platform for managing containers and services. Kubernetes,  often abbreviated k8s (due to the number of letters in between ‘k’ and ‘s’), eliminates the need for manual Linux container operations when deploying or scaling applications.  What is Kubernetes Used for? The basic idea behind Kubernetes is to move away…
Learn Algorithms: Courses, Training, and Other Resources
How to Learn Writing Algorithms Writing algorithms can be overwhelming for even the most seasoned developer. Many of them memorize all of the different approaches to a particular problem. However, what if we instead took a look at a guided outline of how to look at a problem so we can solve the problem? This…
Learn SQL Server: Courses, Resources and Tutorials
Working with a greenfield project means you are starting from scratch. It is common to be a part of a team that has to make the choice of what type of database to use. If having access to available data when a transaction has been completed is important, you are likely using a structured query…
Learn MVC: Courses, Training, and Other Resources
Software developers commonly use design patterns when architecting a new application or website. A high-level design pattern is a very general, reusable template utilized to solve a problem. This article takes a look at the model-view-controller (MVC) design pattern: what it is, why it might be useful, and how to get started when learning how…
Git Cherry Pick: A Step-By-Step Guide
As beginning developers, we learn git simply through repetition. We learn quickly what git pull, git push, and git commit each means. As we transition to work on bigger projects and collaborate with teams, we start to learn more advanced git commands that will help keep our codebase’s version control history straight between the individuals…
Learn Apache HTTP Web Server: Courses, Training, and Other Resources
How to Learn Apache Web Server Knowing how to create a web server is important in backend web development. When you start to learn backend web development, there are a couple of options for you to learn how to create a web server.  The Apache HTTP Server has been one of the most consistent, secure,…
Learn Docker: Courses, Training, and Other Resources
How to Learn Docker The loading and unloading of goods used to be done manually by dock workers. Also, waiting for the proper vessel to continue the shipment’s journey to its destination took a lot of time and effort. After World War II, when the standardized shipping container was invented, cranes took care of all…
Git Status: A Guide to Responses
The git status command can be a helpful tool when you need to know what state your local repository is in with respect to the remote repository.  Basic Terms Some basic terms to be familiar with as we go forward:  Local Repository – This is your local version of your project on your machine. It…
Inline CSS: How to Add CSS Inline to a Web Page
Inline CSS applies a CSS style inside an element's HTML tag. The style HTML attribute sets the style of an element. Inline CSS rules override styles from other CSS documents because they apply directly to an element. The HTML programming language is used to define the structure of a web page. CSS allows you to…
CSS Bold: A Guide to Using Font-Weight
To create a CSS bold text effect, you must use the font-weight property. The font-weight property determines the "weight" of a font, or how bold that font appears. You can use keywords or numeric values to instruct CSS on how bold a piece of text should be. As developers, in going to layout a website,…
SQL EXISTS: How to use this SQL Operator
There are many things you can do to define a query in SQL. One thing you can do to a WHERE clause is check to see if a row exists with the matching parameters in the database. We do this with the EXISTS operator. The syntax is as follows: SELECT <Column>)FromTable1> FROM <Table 1 Name>…
JavaScript: Refresh Page
Sometimes you need to refresh a webpage using JavaScript. If the need arises, use the location object to use the reload() method. <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width"> <title>repl.it</title> <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> </head> <body onload="handleLoad()"> <button id="btn">Click Me!</button> <script> let arrayKittens = [ "http://placekitten.com/200/300", "http://placekitten.com/210/310", "http://placekitten.com/300/300", "http://placekitten.com/300/200", "http://placekitten.com/310/210", "http://placekitten.com/400/300"]; let…
JavaScript Sleep Method Doesn’t Exist: What to Use Instead
If you’re an engineer or developer coming from different programming languages, you might have used a native method called sleep() to stall or pause a method from executing. JavaScript doesn’t have such a native method.  In this article, we will talk about two different ways we can use JavaScript to simulate a sleep function: Promises…
JavaScript GET Request: Using the Fetch API
Developers often have to retrieve data from their own API or third-party API. This article talks about using your browser’s Fetch API to GET some data from an endpoint. What is the Fetch API?  The Fetch API is an interface that allows us to make HTTP Requests to a server from a web browser like…
Git Error: untracked files would be overwritten by checkout
While using git to keep track of your changes in your project, many things can happen that cause an error. When you move from one branch to another, you might get this error: error: the following untracked working tree files would be overwritten by checkout [ List of Files Here ] Please, commit your changes…
Git Error: Pull is not possible…
When we use git, sometimes we come upon confusing errors. This article aims to take a look at one common error when using version control and provide a possible solution. Look at this error:  Pull is not possible because you have unmerged files. Please, fix them up in the work tree, and then use 'git…
Git refusing to merge unrelated histories
There are several places in the git workflow that can cause errors. In this article, we’ll talk about one such error that is confusing to tackle and find a solution to! The Git Error The fatal: refusing to merge unrelated histories error occurs when you have cloned a project from a git repository and somewhere…
Error: Failed To Push Some Refs To Remote
When working with git, you may encounter various errors, especially when working on the same codebase with a team. The Error Message The error: failed to push some refs to remote git error occurs when new changes are pushed to the repository on version control not yet made it to your local repository. This could…
C: How To Setup Your C Compiler
Let’s take a look at how to get started with learning C. C, unlike JavaScript, is a low-level language that needs to be compiled in advance, prior to execution. You need to download a compiler to get started, if you would like to work with C on your machine. To do this, you need to…
C Hello World: Step-By-Step Guide
To get started with your very first program in C, you must first be sure a C compiler is installed on your machine. Our article on C Compilers and How to Set Them Up will help you get started. Hello World! in C Getting your first program off the ground is simple once you have…
Uncaught Rangeerror: Maximum Call Stack Size Exceeded
It’s happened. You’ve been coding a bit and you receive an error in your console or in your chrome dev tools that says uncaught rangeerror: maximum call stack size exceeded… with a traceback. What does it mean? Reason: Recursive function does not have a base case When we write a recursive function, we need to…
Python Fundamentals: Capitalize First Letter of String
There are many methods to manipulate strings in Python. If you must capitalize the first letter of a string in Python in a code challenge, how will you do it? This article talks about one way you can manipulate strings to meet that objective. The Prompt Given a Python string, write a function that will…
Higher Order Functions in JavaScript: A Guide
As a developer, you have likely used regular JavaScript functions. Called first order functions,  they don’t take in a function as a parameter or return a function. function hello(name) { return "Hello," + " " + name } console.log(hello("Career Karma")); // Hello, Career Karma This article talks about higher order functions (HOF). These are functions…

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